All posts by scratchandsniff

www.scratchandsniff.ca

Train Like a Trainer!

Have you ever wondered how a trainer does it? Trainers aren’t hiding their magic wands from you! The steps below outline a few of the things great trainers do to help their dogs flourish and become the best dog they can be.  

Don’t be stingy!

Training is not minimum wage work! Don’t expect your dog to work for less than you do at your job. Being stingy with reinforcements is a sure-fire way to minimize learning and demotivate your dog. 

Reinforcement is feedback for your dog, letting her know she is on the right track. If you don’t provide reinforcements often enough, your dog will not be clear on the task. This is equivalent to emailing your boss for clarification on a project and not getting a reply for a week. If you don’t provide a sufficiently valuable reinforcement, your dog will not be motivated to stick with the training session. Would you clean my eavestroughs in exchange for a bag of used tissues? 

Your dog needs the information and motivation that generous reinforcement provides. Expecting your dog to work for free or for minimum wage will damage your training goal. 

Think ahead

Proactively planning your training sessions is key to success. Before even looking at your dog, chop your treats to the size of a pea, have your clicker on a wrist coil, and arrange a pouch at your side so you can quickly access treats – like a cowboy drawing his gun from his holster in an old western flick. Prepare any props you may need during the session, and place them off to the side of your training space until you are ready to use them. 

Fumbling around by breaking up too-large treats, dropping your clicker, and spending an extra three seconds digging around in a poorly designed pouch are all ways to disrupt the flow of a training session – and ultimately lose your dog’s focus. Keeping a flow of clear feedback depends on your smart preparation ahead of the training session.

Clarity and structure

One of the best ways to set your dog up for success is to have a single focus during a training session and keeping it short (five minutes), especially if you are introducing a new behaviour or concept. If you are introducing “lie down,” for example, focus only on lying down. Do not also teach sit from the down during the same session. Lure or hand signal for down, reinforce, and then toss a treat a foot or two away. Your dog will stand up to get that treat – and be ready for another trial of lying down. If you allow your dog to focus on one single exercise at a time, your dog will acquire that skill faster.

Your dog isn’t GIVING you a hard time, she’s HAVING a hard time

Sometimes the best laid plans can go awry because your dog is worried, overstimulated, or otherwise stressed. A critical skill for trainers is being able to recognize when their dog’s emotional response is blocking her ability to acquire a skill and then adjusting the training session accordingly. This might mean ditching your original plan in order to help your dog cope with a specific trigger or new environment, training in a different location, or perhaps even delaying the session to another time, when your dog is feeling better. 

Setting priorities and realistic goals

Particularly in cases of behaviour modification for stress-based problems, many dogs will have very real limitations. Becoming a therapy dog in a children’s hospital is not a realistic goal for a dog with a history of biting children, but this doesn’t mean that the dog and owner can’t have a full and meaningful life together! 

Sometimes the popular notion of a “good dog” is way off base. Decide what really matters to you and train for that! 

A dog who happily jumps to greet people isn’t a bad dog, and an owner may actually choose not to train “four-on-the-floor” for greetings. This owner is well within her rights to own a dog who jumps up to greet as long as she’s mindful to manage her dog around people who do not want to be jumped on (for example, asking if the person is okay being jumped on and using leashes or gates to prevent access if they do not consent). 

The owner may make this decision because she enjoys the enthusiastic greeting, or she may just be working on other issues that take priority over jumping up. As long as everyone involved, including the dog, is happy with the outcome, this is perfectly okay. (This would, of course, not apply to situations where a dog is stressed or a risk to others, or where the dog’s behaviour infringes on another person’s rights.)

Don’t blame the dog 

Blaming the dog for poor training results is equivalent to expecting your dog to train herself. If your dog is not doing what you ask, your dog either doesn’t understand or isn’t motivated (or both!). Luckily, you can acquire the skills necessary to change both of these situations! 

If your dog isn’t behaving as you’d like, take a step back before you get frustrated and inclined to point blame, and assess your training. Hiring a skilled professional dog trainer is a valuable step in rectifying why you’re not getting the results you want. 

Get the most out of the coaching by fully incorporating the trainer’s feedback and asking targeted questions. Just as raising a child doesn’t make you a child psychologist, having raised a dog in past doesn’t necessarily prepare you for the training challenges you face with your current dog.

Do the legwork

Think – Plan – Do is critical to a constructive approach to dog training. It is easy to get stuck on one of those steps and forget that doing the work is as critical as planning for it. “Practise makes perfect” isn’t as accurate as “perfect practise makes perfect” – if you don’t do the work, you don’t get the results!

Agility (And Then Some!)

Agility is a fantastic activity to build your dog’s confidence, teach her to look to you for direction, and simply have fun. And this program does just that!

Agility (And Then Some!) is geared towards owners having fun with their dogs. The equipment is modified to meet each dog’s skill level, confidence and physical ability, including younger and older dogs. There’s no need for you or your dog to be a top athlete to join class!

In addition to the usual agility obstacles, this program also includes additional exercises and creative obstacles added to each level to make this class so much more than a typical agility class!

Requirements and Prerequisites:

  • Dogs must be up-to-date on all vaccines as recommended by your veterinarian
  • Completion of a foundation program at Scratch and Sniff Canine Services OR an equivalent from another school if owners/dogs have a solid understanding of clicker training and prerequisite behaviours. (note: see important prerequisite behaviours, below)
  • Owners who have not trained at Scratch and Sniff Canine Services previously will be required to view the Orientation Webinar session prior to class, and possibly attend a free assessment
  • Prerequisite training skills (taught with positive reinforcement/clicker):
    • Hand target (touch)
    • Basic skills in recall, sit, leash walking, leave it/’doggy zen’
    • Must be able to work off leash behind barriers and pass other dogs on leash in a controlled manner – all obstacles are completed off leash.
  • Refunds and credit are not available for Specialty Classes.

The school is closed for holidays Dec 22-Jan 5. Inquiries made during this time will receive a reply Jan 6.
Book your spot in class below!

Class will not be cancelled for routine winter weather or storms – students will be alerted if poor weather results in cancellation.

Level One: Schedule

$275+HST
Starting Saturday Jan 11 2020, 12:45pm-1:45pm
*
There is no class on Feb 15 due to the holiday weekend. See dates below.

Level One: Book Your Spot!

Health Documentation for Puppy Class

Click here for the Health Form for the Puppy Socialization Program.

Puppies without this documentation cannot be admitted into class.

This specific form, signed by your attending veterinarian, is strictly required for admittance into your first class. Send a clear photo or scan prior to your first class (preferred), or let the office know if you are going to bring a hard copy to your first class.

Thanks for keeping puppy class safe for everyone!

Click here for the Health Form for the Puppy Socialization Program.

Open Practise Time

Current and past students of Scratch and Sniff Canine Services are welcome to participate in our Open Practise Times!

Sometimes it can be hard to get motivated to train. Or maybe you have the motivation, but not the space! Poor weather and early darkness in winter makes it tough to find opportunities to train in a space larger than your living room.

Open Practise Time gives you the floorspace and designated training time you need to get on the road to accomplishing your training goals.

Want to join us? Have a look at this important information, then register at the bottom of the page:

  • This is your time to practice on your own. This means that there will be no structure, content, or instruction, and this is reflected in the low cost. Come prepared knowing what you want to work on with your dog! This is training time with your dog, not a play group.
  • Participants have access to any equipment they would like to use, however are asked to determine this upon arrival. Please bring your own training supplies such as treats, Kongs, mats, tug toys, etc. You can find a list here.
  • While you are not obliged to stay for the full hour, you are asked to arrive on time. Dogs are sensitive to changes in the room, and arriving late is disruptive to other participants.
  • Please adhere to positive reinforcement training and non-aversive equipment on the dog.
  • Be aware that there are children who frequent a neighbouring business. Keep distance or arrange to be let in the back door if this is a concern. Please respect our neighbours and their patrons.
  • Payment and registration is required to hold your spot, spaces are limited! There are no refunds nor rescheduling for missed Open Practice Time. Be prepared to attend the session that you have booked!
  • Dog must be healthy and up to date on vaccinations as recommended by your veterinarian.

Book Your Open Practise Time!

																																  
						

Look, Don’t Touch!

I was out for a walk on the city streets with my elderly dog, Arlo. When I saw someone approaching with a young doodle, I led Arlo up a driveway to wait for them to pass. The owner and I greeted each other briefly, and then she stopped. His owner asked me a question about my dog, and as I answered briefly, the doodle leaned into the leash and oriented his body and wide, excited eyes toward my dog, tail wagging higher and harder. The owner asked if the dogs could meet, and I politely declined. We said our goodbyes, and as she dragged her dog away he gurgled a bark through the pressure on his collar.

So why didn’t I allow a greeting? The answer lies in frustration, and a dog’s response to it.

Frustration often arises from being unable to fulfill an intense want or need. In our dogs, it’s usually a product of arousal in combination with restraint. For the doodle, this meant that seeing Arlo just 15 feet away resulted in feelings of excitement (arousal). He was confined on a leash, which acted as the restraint and prevented access.

This combination of factors resulted in frustration, expressed as staring and orienting, leaning hard on the leash, and vocalization. This was a pretty minor display as compared to many other dogs, but the effect on this dog – or the dog being stared down – shouldn’t be minimized.

Frustration in humans leads to all sorts of maladaptive coping mechanisms. Road rage is a perfect example of how frustration causes uncomfortable feelings up to the point of aggressive outbursts or even physical assault. Frustration is profoundly distressing for the person experiencing it, even if it doesn’t escalate to that point.

Dogs show a similar range of expression of frustration, and unfortunately the information available to most pet owners neglects to mention it as a cause of problem behaviours or even aggression. Most people do not see a connection with their cute little puppy excitedly bouncing around on the end of the leash barking because “she just wants to say hi!”

Excitement is normal, and it is not this excitement that is the problem – it is the human response to it! Too often, owners of friendly dogs allow their dogs to experience these feelings of frustration and even deliberately put their dogs in situations where it is likely to happen.

At best, they teach their dogs to get cranked up at the sight of other dogs and that pulling and barking is the best way to fulfil the desire to meet the other dog. At worst, they are cultivating an aggressive response to other dogs. That can either come from a road-rage-like response to the feelings of frustration or through well-intended training methods that include corrections like jerks to the leash. In this case, a dog who previously was excited about dogs comes to learn that the presence of other dogs causes their owner to jerk the leash, which causes them pain or discomfort. This dog can easily be convinced that other dogs aren’t good to have around and will develop an aggressive response to other dogs due to this association.

So what can you do instead? We’ll use an example of other dogs as distractions, but this is applicable to people or anything else that excites your dog in a happy way.

  1. Teach your dog “Say Hi!” When you say this, it means your dog is allowed to engage in a social interaction with the dog. After you say, “Say Hi!,” you can usher your dog in to greet on a loose leash or off leash. Of course, take appropriate precautions about who your dog is greeting, particularly regarding finding friendly dogs who also are allowed to greet, etc.
  1. Teach your dog that when you don’t say, “Say Hi!,” it means that social interaction is off limits. This is a critical distinction for your dog to understand and requires a lot of consistency on your part!

This can be achieved using a combination of factors:

Keep Your Distance

If your leashed dog is too close to the dog, she will be frustrated. It is as simple as that! How close is too close will depend very much on your dog, the dog she wants to greet, and the environment. Generally, you will be able to tell if your dog is too close because she orients fully away from you and toward the dog, blinks less or has wider eyes, leans into the leash, either stands very still or moves rapidly, and is less responsive to an offer of a treat. If she does this, move away 5 to 10 feet.

“Look, Don’t Touch”

You’ll need to prepare a baggy of treats that your dog loves – don’t be stingy! – and have these at the ready in an easily accessible pocket or training pouch. Begin at a distance where your dog notices the other dog but doesn’t display the above body language.

Notice when your dog looks toward the other dog and immediately say, “yes!” and feed a treat. It can be helpful to show the dog the treat and place it on the ground by your foot so she turns around to take the treat.

Repeat this for as many times as your dog glances at the dog. Always time “yes!” with the moment she looks; there’s no benefit in letting her stare! You will soon notice that she gives a quick glance and looks back to you before you even have a chance to say, “yes!” This is perfect! Continue to reward this! If this isn’t happening, you’ll need to begin at a longer distance or use tastier treats. It can be helpful to practise with a friend and their dog so you also get some practise before training out on walks.

“Say Hi!”

Practise “Look, Don’t Touch” without greeting the large majority of the time. This will help set an expectation that your dog is to continue past dogs and people, and it will go a long way to prevent frustration from re-emerging. When you are going to allow a greeting, for example with a neighbour or dog friend, begin with “Look, Don’t Touch” until your dog is settled and functional. You can then tell your calm dog, “Say Hi!” and allow her to greet her friends while maintaining a loose leash.

If that doodle had been put though these paces and, instead of leaning into the leash and staring, was quietly standing with her owner, I may have allowed a greeting with Arlo. While I didn’t have the impression that this dog had any aggressive intention, it’s very likely that his strained body language would have translated into a very forward, pushy introduction. This wouldn’t be fair to either dog, particularly as Arlo, at the age of 15, easily falls off balance.

Many other dogs will assume the worst if a dog pushes into their space and may react defensively to that approach. Help your dog maintain her friendly demeanour by preventing frustration.

Are you having some trouble with your pooch’s behaviour around people or dogs? Check out our group classes or private training, or contact the office and we’ll be happy to help!

What to Bring to Class

You can also find this list in your program manual (see confirmation and reminder auto-emails), as well as in the Group Class Information Document.

You will need to prepare the following prior to every class:

  • Health Form (puppy class only) is critical for admission into class. Send this documentation in advance, or at the latest give it to your instructor at the start of your first class. For safety reasons, puppies without proper documentation will not be allowed in the school.
  • Treat pouch Purchase a pouch from the school or a pet store. A fanny pack or a rock climbing chalk pouch will also work. This is important.
  • Clicker This is included with the class.
  • Moist or semi-moist treats – Approximately 300-500pcs.
    • Cut all treats to about the size of a large pea, or smaller for smaller dogs.
    • Store-bought treats: Rollover logs, dehydrated organ meats, Ziwi Peak, etc.
    • Cook and chop meat from the grocery, such as: chicken breast, steak, pork chop, chicken hearts/gizzard, beef/pork heart, pre-cooked hot dogs, cheese, ham, etc. 
    • Do not bring vegetables, kibble, or hard crunchy biscuits.
  • 6ft leather or nylon leash – no flexi leashes
  • Tug toy – Long braided fleece toy or ‘stuffless’ toy.
  • Body harness
    • There are harnesses available for purchase at the school (arrive early for a fitting), or find another from a pet store.
    • Choke, prong, e-collars or similar equipment is not permitted.
  • One or two food-stuffed toys 
    • This will be necessary to help your dog settle on a mat at the beginning of every class. Bring only food-stuffed toys (e.g. Kongs) or chews that may be eaten in a stationary position.
  • Small mat. Begin each class by helping your dog to settle on their mat with their food-stuffed toy, see exercise handout. If you are consistent, your dog will be much calmer coming into class!
  • Change of shoes. Socks are also fine!

 

Cooperative Care: Fear Free Vetting, Grooming and Husbandry

Is your dog terrified of the vet? Won’t let you brush him, or cut his nails? Do you have a constant fight over eye drops or ear cleaning?  Can’t get that tick off of him without him hiding under the couch? Or maybe you have a puppy and you just want to prevent these common problems?

Did you know that just holding him down to “get it done” can actually make everything worse?! Did you know that you can only “trick” a dog into sitting still so many times before she’s “on to you”?

This program will establish a routine where your dog actually chooses to “opt-in” to these procedures so her routine care is no longer a fight. We will also look at management strategies, such as teaching your dog to file her own nails, while investing in strategies for long-term cooperative care.

This is a class for all dogs, because all dogs need to be vetted, groomed, have their nail trimmed, and have medication applied. Perfect for dogs with existing stress, or to prevent these problems in the first place!

Taught by Fear Free Certified Professional trainer through Fear Free Pets (specific to veterinary and husbandry care), also holding Certified Dog Behavior Consultant certification through the IAABC and Certified Professional Dog Trainer certification through the CCPDT.

Requirements

  • No pre-requisite training is required, however previous experience with positive training is beneficial
  • Dogs should have a consistent handler(s) attending all classes
  • Dogs must be able to work in a group class environment, dogs will not be visible to each other and will not interact. Unmanageable reactivity to dogs or people, and frequent/excessive barking cannot be accommodated in this class. (contact the office for an assessment if you are unsure)
  • Dogs who bite badly and/or with little provocation will be best served by private training.
  • Participants must watch the Orientation Webinar.
  • If your dog does not meet prerequisites, private training is available to you

Pricing and Schedule

This class is not currently on the schedulejoin our newsletter for an alert next time it’s on the schedule!

Please ensure that you are able to attend ALL classes – in the unfortunate event that a makeup class is necessary in the first half of the program, it must be scheduled prior to the next class and will be available for $30+HST/30min, as per policy.

Book your spot now!

Contact the office with questions, or book your spot below.

Paint Your Pet!

Saturday Mar 7 2020, 1:30pm-5:30pm
(Registration deadline: Feb 21st)

Scratch and Sniff Canine Services is hosting a Paint Your Pet workshop with the fabulous and versatile artist, Shannon Darch!

Spend an afternoon with other dog-lovers (and cat-lovers, and hamster-lovers, and fish-lovers…), painting a portrait of the animal you love most – your pet!

No artistic skill is required! Just send us a digital photo of your pet, and Shannon will create a beautiful portrait for you to paint during the workshop with the paints and tools provided.

Shannon will coach you in technique and other artistic decisions as you complete the painting.

Your choice of a cartoon-style, or a realistic rendering of your pet. See the gallery below for examples!

Shannon has been a professional artist, cartoonist, illustrator for over 25 years. She has created dog caricatures and portraits for clients across North America and a few in Europe. Shannon has done artistic work for some large dog companies like, Iams, Purina, Dogs in Canada, and Superdogs, as well as illustrating several children’s books. The Holly the Deaf Dalmatian series, The Davy Rule, and a few others.

Shannon started Paint Parties over a year ago as a charity fundraiser and they’ve taken off! In her ‘other life’, Shannon is a dog trainer and works at a training school in Burlington, and performs with her dogs in WoofJocks Canine All-Stars.

Check out more of Shannon’s work and participant’s finished paintings through her Facebook Page and the gallery below!

Registration Info

Saturday March 7th 2020, 1:30pm-5:30pm
Registration deadline: Feb 21st 2020

$80+HST

You’ll be provided with a custom portrait of your pet for you to paint, paint and supplies, artistic instruction and light refreshments.

This is a “people-only” event, thanks for leaving pets at home! Refunds or exchanges are not available, double check your schedule prior to registration!

  1. Purchase your ticket by clicking here! Space is limited!
    Refunds are not available, please double check your schedule before purchase!
  2. Submit the required digital photo(s) of your pet to the office by Feb 21st at the absolute latest. (But preferably along with registration)
    • Photos should be in focus, well-lit and close-up. This is the image Shannon will sketch for you to paint!
    • For a cartoon painting: Send a clear head shot and full body profile
    • For a realistic painting: Send a clear, close up head shot.
    • Looking for tips on how to take a good photo? Check out this Podcast (Drinking from the Toilet with Hannah Branigan).

A Gallery of Past Workshops

“My Dog is SO STUBBORN!”

How often do you think “My dog is so stubborn!”? Or maybe you hear that from friends and family. Usually we describe dogs as being “stubborn” when things don’t go our way or the dog doesn’t immediately do what we want him to do.

But is this really a helpful way of describing a pet’s behaviour?

“Stubbornness” is a character trait or temperament, and it is far more applicable to human behaviour rather than animal behaviour. In terms of developing a strategy to train your dog, it’s a dead end. When you think to yourself “my dog is so stubborn!,” just put down the leash, step away from the dog, and hit the drawing board to think through what is actually happening.

Confusion

Think back to a time when you were given instructions and were left feeling unsure of exactly what you were supposed to do. Or maybe you confidently proceeded to do what you thought you were instructed to do – only to find out that you had done it completely wrong! How helpful would it be if your instructor had blamed you and called you stubborn? If your dog doesn’t comply with your request, she may simply be confused about what you want from her.

Motivation

Behaviour always serves a functional purpose. This means that dogs always have a reason for what they do — even if you’re unsure of what that reason is. This might mean that your dog has a good reason not to comply with your instructions – and it’s your job to find out what is motivating that undesirable behaviour. Similarly, if you don’t provide any motivation for your dog to do what you ask, your dog is unlikely to comply.

Problems with motivation can also be linked back to confusion. Even if you’re using the best treats, you will find that your dog will stop working with you or even show problematic behaviour like barking or jumping if she’s confused. Confusion is an unpleasant feeling, and most of us want to avoid feeling that way. This may come across as your dog appearing “bored” or “stubborn.”

Health Issues

It’s not always obvious when a dog is feeling unwell. Many owners don’t consider that their dog’s problematic behaviour is caused by pain or another physical ailment because the ailment is not immediately apparent to them.

Consider the following: “My puppy can’t have a urinary tract infection. He can hold it all night and there’s no blood! He just gets mad at me and pees on the floor when I leave the house.” Or “I know my dog isn’t in pain because he doesn’t whine or yelp. He stops on walks because he’s stubborn.”

Medical problems in dogs very often show up as behavioural symptoms. Training can never fix a medical issue, but sometimes health care can fix a behavioural problem.

Sometimes feeling unwell isn’t as serious as an infection or pain. Sometimes a dog is hungry, tired or even just mentally fatigued. While most dogs always seem to be hungry, there is a difference between eating food because it’s delicious and eating food to relieve the discomfort of a growly stomach. Over-training can be a problem for some people (and their dogs). Working a dog for too long will result in mental fatigue, which can sometimes make an owner think that their dog suddenly doesn’t want to work, that she isn’t trying hard enough, or that she is “stubborn.”

Now that you know some of the reasons why your dog my appear to be acting stubborn, what can you do instead?

Find Out What Is Reinforcing to Your Dog

Think about motivators as a “pay scale.” Would you go to work if you didn’t paid? Even if you love your job, you still need to buy food, pay rent – and buy dog food. Your dog will have a similar pay scale when you’re asking her to do something that is otherwise not appealing to her.

Here are two things to keep in mind: First, have you used reinforcers that are valuable for your dog? Or are you asking your dog to do something without giving him a reason to do it? Second, what is motivating your dog to do the problematic behaviour? What is he getting out of doing that behaviour or, alternately, what unpleasant thing is he avoiding by doing that behaviour?

Learn About Body Language

Don’t jump to conclusions about how your dog is feeling or why she’s behaving a particular way. When you find yourself throwing around a label like “stubborn,” pause for a moment and think critically.

What body language are you seeing that makes you want to call your dog stubborn? Often, dogs who are showing appeasement behaviour are labelled “guilty.” (Dogs show appeasement behaviour to prevent aggression in the other person or dog by indicating “I am not a threat.”) Dogs who are highly stressed and lack social skills are often labelled “dominant.”

Owners sometimes grossly misinterpret their dog’s body language, leading them to mislabel their dog’s behaviour. As a result, they may take the wrong actions to solve the problem.

Control the Environment

You can control your dog’s behaviour by controlling the triggers that cause the problematic behaviour. For example, if your dog greets people crazily on the street, can you give him more space while you work on the problem? You and your dog will succeed more quickly if you tackle the problem while it’s still minor, rather than ignoring the early signs and throwing your dog into a situation he can’t cope with. If you can control your dog’s triggers, you’ll find that the “stubbornness” will dissipate.

Change Your Dog’s Emotional Response

“Stubborn” dogs are often experiencing lots of feelings that they don’t know how to handle. Misinterpreting this emotional state as the dog intentionally trying to get your goat is unhelpful at best, but it may actually escalate the problem. Your dog isn’t trying to give you a hard time; your dog is having a hard time. A little empathy can go a long way to helping you find a solution.

Seek Help

Seeking help from a qualified professional shouldn’t ever be a last-ditch effort. Find a positive reinforcement–based trainer to help you wade through your dog’s problematic behaviour to find a practical solution. Also, your veterinarian may be able to identify a health problem that could be contributing to behaviours that you may interpret as stubbornness.

Our dogs can be frustrating at times, but labelling a dog “stubborn” will never lead you to a solution to a behaviour problem. Leave the labels at the door and take a step back. Assess why your dog might be doing something, don’t disregard the potential of a health problem, and look closely at how your dog is feeling. Critique your assumptions about your dog, and you’ll have a much easier time actually fixing the problem!

Group Class Information Document

We are located at 340 Southgate Dr #3 Guelph.

Our class schedule is extremely flexible, and to take advantage of it you need to understand how the schedule works! This is not your average group class!

If you have any questions about the content of the Group Class Information Document, please contact the office with questions before purchase.

Puppy Socialization Group Class Information Document

Life Skills Group Class Information Document

Click the image to view detailed class information (PDF)